By Richard Benyo
For the digest-oriented, a manual of essential marathon listings, each held to 25 words or less.
© 1999 42K(+) Press, Inc.Although marathoners like to trace their avocation and lifestyle back to the often misrepresented legend of Pheidippides, for all intents and purposes the marathon as we know it is barely into its second century. For newcomers and hoary vets alike, here’s a pocket guide to the basic names and concepts that form the foundation of modern marathoning:A
adidas. Major German sport shoe manufacturer well known throughout the world but able to get only tentative toehold in the U.S. market.
AIMS (Association of International Marathons and Road Races). Group of concerned marathon directors banded together to promote, market, and standardize marathons throughout the known universe.
air sole. Late 1970s Nike solution to providing ultimate impact protection for distance runners while buoying Nike sales through the 1980s, especially in basketball via "Air Jordan."
AAU (Amateur Athletic Union). Governing body of amateur U.S. sports in 1970s, a.k.a. "Antiquated Attitudes Updated" as it struggled through women’s rights to compete in distance events.
Anderson, John Robert "Bob"(see Distance Running News, Runner’s World). Eccentric, prickly Kansan boy who pioneered many of today’s taken-for-granted institutions, including Runner’s World (originally DRN, 1966-69), expos, Corporate Cup, and more.
Asics (see Tiger shoes). Modern name of Japanese Tiger running shoe, a brand made popular from the car trunks of Nike creators Phil Knight and Jeff Johnson.
Athens, 1896. Modern Olympic Games added a novelty event called "Marathon" to commemorate a fabled run from the Plains of Marathon to Athens; event may outlive Games.
Averoff, Georgios. Shipping magnate patron saint of first Modern Olympics went so far as to offer daughter’s hand in marriage to Marathon winner (if a Greek).B
Barron, Gayle.Winner of 1978 Boston Marathon, author of Beauty of Running, coach of Atlanta-based Team Spirit marathon training group.
Beames, Adrienne. Before any woman had broken three hours in the marathon, this Australian ran a dubious 2:46 in 1971.
Beardsley, Richard "Dick." Accident-prone Minnesotan half of classic "Duel in the Sun" (with Alberto Salazar) at Boston 1982; still holds third best U.S. marathon time.
Belokas, Spiridon (see Ruiz, Rosa). Third-place finisher of first Modern Olympics Marathon in 1896 later dumped for taking a car ride through middle miles.
Benoit (Samuelson), Joan. Tough competitor and pioneer, once described by her coach as "a bowling ball with legs"; won first-ever Women’s Olympic Marathon in 1984.
Berlin Marathon. After a 10-year stall, men’s marathon best time fell here in 1998 with Ronaldo DaCosta’s 2:06:05.
Bikila, Abebe.Consistently voted best male marathoner in history, the Ethiopian palace guard won Olympic gold in 1960 and 1964, setting new world’s best both times.
blood doping. Controversial performance aid where blood is extracted and stored for reinfusion before race in order to elevate red blood cell count and hence oxygen transport.
Blue Ribbon Sports (see air sole; Bowerman, William "Bill"; Johnson, Jeff; Knight, Phil; Nike shoes; Tiger shoes). Company formed in 1970s to sell Japanese Tiger running shoes in U.S.; eventually evolved into Nike.
Bonner, Beth. Generally acknowledged as the first female to break 3:00 in the marathon, Bonner was killed in a biking accident in 1998.
Bordin, Gelindo. The only male Olympic gold-medal winner (1988) to also win Boston (1990), the well-respected Italian serves as race director of Prague International Marathon.
"Boston." Cradle of American marathoning; begun in 1897 after a group of BAA members returned from the first Modern Olympic Games impressed by the "marathon" event.
BAA (Boston Athletic Association). The group designated to oversee the famed Boston Marathon; met in official "Jock" Semple’s massage room before moving to better quarters in the 1970s.
Bowerman, William "Bill." Famed University of Oregon track coach also famed for using his wife’s waffle iron to create the revolutionary soles for Nike’s "Waffle Trainer" running shoes.
Brasher, Christopher "Chris." Accomplished British steeplechaser, Brasher saw the future of marathoning at New York and transported the concept to England by founding the London Marathon.
Breal, Michel. Frenchman who offered a special cup for the winner of the novelty "marathon" event at the first Modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.
Bridges, Cheryl. First woman to dip into the 2:40s in the marathon, with her 2:49 several months after Beth Bonner’s initial smashing of the 3:00 barrier.
Brown, Barry. Long-running U.S. masters marathon record holder (2:15:15, St. Paul, 1984); ultimately committed suicide in the wake of business deals gone sour.
Brown, Ellison Myers "Tarzan." Brilliant but erratic Indian runner who would either win Boston or stop along the course to take a swim in a convenient lake.
Brown, Julie.Prominent American marathoner of the late 1970s and early 1980s was blessed with consistency but always just off the world’s best level.
Buniak, Peter (see Drayton, Jerome). Immigrant to Canada changed his name and, with trademark sunglasses and sinister mustache, became Canada’s greatest marathoner; won 1977 Boston.
Burfoot, Amby. Only American to win Boston in the 1960s (1968), "The Ambulator" (low-to-ground style) became well-respected editor of Runner’s World magazine in 1986.C
Cabrera, Delfo. Second Argentinian in three Olympics (1932, 1936, 1948) to win (see Zabala, Juan Carlos); no Latin American has won since 1948.
Campbell, John. Broke fellow New Zealander Jack Foster’s 16-year-old world masters record with 2:11:05.
carbohydrate loading. The process of superloading the body with carbohydrates (fuel) in anticipation of a marathon or long run.
ChampionChip. One giant step for moving running farther into the Brave New World by allowing fully computerized scoring.
Chicago Marathon. During the late 1970s and early 1980s dueled with NYC to be biggest and best; after decline, the race is back strong as ever.
Cierpinski, Waldemir. Didn’t take to steeplechase so changed to marathon and won 1976 and 1980 Olympic gold; now felt to have been object of drug experimentations.
Clayton, Derek. Fierce Australian competitor who twice in the 1960s set world’s best marathon time, the latter of which (2:08:34, 1969) lasted 12 years.
Commonwealth Games. In preprofessional era, one of the world’s great races, with winners including Ron Hill and Rob de Castella.
Cooper, Dr. Kenneth. Former Air Force doctor, his book Aerobics in 1968 started a generation of Americans jogging for health; founder of Cooper Institute in Dallas.
Corbitt, Ted. Likeable African-American masseur and distance runner was the father of American ultrarunning and cofounder of the RRCA.
Costill, Dr. David. Ball State University professor was pioneer at using distance runners as guinea pigs for experiments in human physiology.
course certification. Gives meaning to records by assuring distances are as advertised; pioneered in U.S. by Ted Corbitt.
da Costa, Renaldo.In 1998 broke the decade-old world’s best marathon time with a startling 2:06:05 (a 45-second improvement) at the Berlin Marathon.
Davies, Clive. Welshman transplanted to the U.S.; ran in the low 2:40s in his 60s, which was the fastest in the world at the time.
Daws, Ron. U.S. Olympic marathoner (1968) of limited natural talent but tremendous insights into racing; coached then-wife Lorraine Moller in her early years as a marathoner.
de Castella, Rob. Tough, focused Australian who nearly did to marathon records in the 1980s what Derek Clayton did to them in the 1960s.
De Coubertin, Pierre. Frenchman who created the Modern Olympic GamesÑonly to have the Greeks attempt to make him persona non grata once they got going.
Dellinger, William "Bill." University of Oregon coach (and Olympian) responsible for a raft of star distance runners, including Alberto Salazar.
DeMar, Clarence. Mild-mannered but opinionated typesetter who won the Boston Marathon a record seven times from 1911 to 1930; ran to and from work many days.
depletion phase. Now discredited practice of depriving the body of carbohydrates in preparation for superloading of carbs before marathon.
Derderian, Thomas "Tom."Top New England runner (2:19 PR), running scribe, and author of the monumental epic history, The Boston Marathon.
Dickerson, Marianne. America’s first female medalist at a world level with a silver at the first World Championships in 1983.
digital watches. Put instant results on the wrist of every runner, beginning in the late 1970s.
Dinsamo, Belayneh. One-race wonder who set a world’s best of 2:06:51 in 1988 then all but disappeared; record lasted a decade.
Distance Running News (see Runner’s World). The original publication (1966) from which Runner’s World evolved; begun on Bob Anderson’s bureau top in a Kansas bedroom.
Dorre, Katrin. Incredibly consistent competitor for more than a decade, with a 2:25:15 win at Berlin 1994 to her credit.
Drayton, Jerome (see Buniak, Peter). Canada’s fastest marathoner for more than two decades; the acerbic Drayton ruffled Boston feathers by once suggesting they put water on course.
Durden, Benjamin "Benji." Member of U.S. Olympic team-to-nowhere in 1980; sub-2:10 at Boston 1983; later a widely respected coach.
Edelen, Leonard "Buddy." Last American man to hold world record, with 2:14:28 in 1963; sixth at Tokyo (1964) Olympics.
El Oaufi, Mohamed. North African who won 1928 Olympic gold for France; early hint of the wave of Africans to arrive decades later.
European Championships. Another once-great race that suffered at the hands of professional big-city marathons in recent years.
Exceed. Worthy sports drink competition to Gatorade; produced by Ross Labs, when it began to show its muscle, Quaker Oats’ Gatorade beat it back.
First U.S. marathon, 1896. NYC Olympic fans came back in 1896 and put on a marathon from Stamford, Connecticut, to Columbus Circle in Manhattan; John McDermott won in 3:25:55.
Fixx, James "Jim." Overweight, smoking magazine editor took up running, became addicted, and wrote The Complete Book of Running (1977), which is still the sport’s bestseller.
Foster, John "Jack." New Zealander proved age is not a barrier to performance; ran in the 1972 Olympics at age 41 and for 19 years held masters record.
Frank, Norm. America’s most prolific marathoner, with more than 600 run and still going; broke Sy Mah’s "record."
Fukuoka Marathon. Japanese race that was for many years the unofficial world championship; Frank Shorter won four years straight.
Gailly, Etienne. Gutsy Belgian hobbled into Olympic stadium in London 1948 in the lead only to be passed twice before he staggered across the line in third.
Galloway, Jeff.Olympian in 1972 at 10,000 meters; rose to prominence in the 1980s with Galloway’s Book of Running and in 1990s on walking breaks.
Gatorade. When first released, tasted like the sweat it was meant to replace; today the largest-selling sports drink in the Americas.
Gibb, Roberta "Bobbi." Before Kathrine Switzer ran Boston with a number, Bobbi Gibb ran it numberless, just for the joy of it.
GoreTex. A revolutionary fabric with weave tight enough to keep out raindrops but loose enough to allow perspiration to percolate through.
Gorman, Niki. First great female masters runner won both Boston and New York after passing her 40th birthday.
Green, Norman "Norm." One of the few human beings who lived a half century and then broke 2:30 in the marathon.
GU. The original sports gel.
Gynn, Roger. British writer who worked with Dr. David Martin to capture the statistical history of marathoning.
Hansen, Jacqueline. First woman to go under 2:45 and first to go under 2:40, in both instances setting tough new standards in the world’s best performances.
Hartshorn, Gordon. Texan who ran 74 marathons in as many weeks, a "world record" at the time, while fighting a losing battle with prostate cancer.
Hayes, John "Johnny." America’s Olympic Marathon winner in the 1908 race where Dorando Pietri was disqualified after receiving assistance inside stadium.
Henderson, Joe.Editor of Runner’s World from 1970-77, propagator of LSD (long slow distance), and author of two dozen popular books on running.
Hicks, Thomas. American won first Olympic Marathon held in U.S. in St. Louis in 1904 after Fred Lorz was DQ’d for taking a ride.
Higdon, Hal. Prolific writer and runner; has been covering the sport and performing at a national level for more than 50 years.
Hill, Ronald "Ron." Second runner (after Derek Clayton) to break 2:10; winner of both Commonwealth and European titles.
Hirsch, George. Publisher of The Runner, a competitor to Runner’s World, founded
in 1978; became publisher of RW when Rodale Press purchased The Runner.
Honolulu Marathon. Largest international race held in the U.S., with two-thirds of entrants coming from Japan.
Human Kinetics, Inc. Most prominent U.S. source of running books and original publisher of Marathon & Beyond.
Hussien, Ibraham. Genial Kenyan runner who provided one of the greatest-ever Boston finishes in 1988, outkicking Tanzania’s Ikangaa in the final yards.
Hwang, Young-Cho. Twenty-two-year-old South Korean winner of the 1992 Olympic Marathon who soon after retired with injuries.
Ikangaa, Juma. Talented Tanzanian runner best remembered for his stirring finishing duel with Ibraham Hussien at Boston in 1988.
Ikenberry, Judy. First U.S. women’s marathon champion after the AAU finally gave full approval to the event in 1974.
IAAF (International Amateur Athletic Federation). The international federation charged with trying to regulate amateur sports on the world stage.
Irvine, "Sister" Marion. Oldest American to qualify for U.S. Olympic Trials; ran the 1984 Trials Marathon at age 54.
Johnson, Jeff (see air sole; Blue Ribbon Sports; Bowerman, William "Bill"; Knight, Phil; Nike shoes; Tiger shoes). With Phil Knight founded Blue Ribbon Sports to sell Americans Japanese running shoes; legend has Jeff thinking up the company name Nike in a dream.
Jones, Steve. Welchman considered one of the toughest, most focused marathoners ever; three sub-2:08:30s in one year (1984-85).
Kardong, Donald "Don."President of RRCA, founder of Bloomsday race, fourth-place Olympic Marathon finisher in 1976, columnist, writer, and all-around good guy.
Kee-chung, Sohn (see Son, Kitei). Japan occupied Korea and made Koreans run under Japanese flag with Japanese names at Berlin 1936; Kee-chung won gold.
Kelley, John A. The Grand Master ran in more Boston Marathons than anyone else (61), winning it twice (1935 and 1945), taking second seven times.
Kelley, John J. The only American to win Boston during the decades of the 1950s; took second place five times.
Kellner, Gyula. The Hungarian ultrarunner was one of only four non-Greeks in the first Olympic Marathon; took third after protesting Belokas’s accepting a ride.
Kempainen, Robert "Dr. Bob." Fastest U.S. marathoner ever with a 2:08:48 at Boston 1994; two-time Olympian (1992 and 1996).
Kenya (1960s). Integral part of the African invasion of distance running during the 1960s led by Ethiopians Bikila and Wolde.
Kenya (1990s). A bottomless well of world-class marathoners.
Keston, John. World’s oldest sub-3:00 marathoner (at 69) and record-holder for 70+ (3:00:58).
Kolehmainen, Hannes. Finnish winner of the 1920 Olympic Marathon, the first in which there was no controversy.
Knight, Phil (see air sole; Blue Ribbon Sports; Bowerman, William "Bill"; Johnson, Jeff; Nike shoes; Tiger shoes). Started by selling Japanese shoes from trunk of car; now sells Nike shoes to the JapaneseÑand everyone else.
Kristiansen, Ingrid.Held world’s best marathon mark (2:21:06; London 1985) for 13 years, but also held many other distance world’s bests.
Kurtis, Doug. World record for most marathon wins (39) and most sub-2:20s (73).
Kuscsik, Nina. American women’s pioneer and first official women’s winner at Boston (1972: 3:10:26).
Larrieu (-Smith), Frances "Francie." Five-time U.S. Olympian, starting with the 1500 at age 19 and advancing to the marathon at 39.
Lawson, Jerry. Only American other than Kempainen to break 2:10 in the 1990s, with a 2:09:35 at Chicago in 1997.
Lazaro, Francisco. Portuguese runner died the day after collapsing at too-hot Olympic marathon at Stockholm in 1912.
Lebow, Fred. Impresario of big-budget, big-city, big-field marathon at New York City, the template for modern megamarathons.
Leonard, Tommie. For decades the "host" of the Eliot Lounge, the most famous of Boston runners’ water holes.
Lindgren, Mavis. Began running in her 60s and continued marathoning well into her 80s.
Lismont, Karel. Consistently good Belgian runner was second to Frank Shorter in 1972, third to Shorter’s second in 1976.
London, 1908. The Olympic marathon at which, to accommodate the Royal Family’s viewing, the course was set at 26 miles, 385 yards.
London Marathon. One of the world’s largest and best-executed marathons.
Long Distance Log. Scrappy little results-centered magazine published by Browning Ross; predated Runner’s World.
LSD (long slow distance). A form of marathon training widely credited to Joe Henderson, who credits it to Arthur Lydiard and Ernst van Aaken.
Lopes, Carlos. Oldest man (at 37) to ever win an Olympic marathon (Los Angeles, 1984), setting Olympic record in the process.
Loroupe, Tegla.Broke 13-year-old marathon best time in Rotterdam in 1998 with a controversial (male pacing) 2:20:47.
Los Angeles Marathon. One of three U.S. races with a history of 20,000+ fields (along with New York City and Honolulu).
Loues, Spiridon (also spelled Louis). Greek winner of first-ever Olympic Marathon in 1896; only Greek to win a gold.
Lorz, Fred (see Ruiz, Rosa). Tried to accept gold at 1904 St. Louis Olympics after catching a car ride at mile three.
Lydiard, Arthur. Acknowledged as the father of modern marathon training, famed New Zealand coach made believers at the 1960 Olympics.
Mah, Sy. One-time world-record holder amassed more marathon finishes (524) than anyone until surpassed by Norm Frank.
Marathon & Beyond.Bastard offspring (birthed January 1997) of defunct The Marathoner (1978-79).
Marathon, Plains of (to Athens; in Greece). Site of epic battle from which Pheidippides supposedly ran to Athens with news of victory, birthing marathon legend.
Marine Corps Marathon. The alternative to New York City, also run in the fall, with no prize money but a five-figure field.
Martin, Dr. David.Famed human physiology expert at Georgia State University and fine scientific author.
Martin (Ondieki), Lisa. Consistently strong contender; silver at Seoul; win at NYC in 1992.
masters marathoning. A one-time fringe movement for over-40 runners now accounts for nearly half of any U.S. field.
Matson, Shirley. Fastest American woman over 50 with a marathon time of 2:50, which broke Sister Marion Irvine’s record.
McArthur, Kenneth. The only South African to win Olympic gold (in 1912) until Josiah Thugwane sated the drought 84 years later.
McDermott, John. Won first marathon in U.S. (Stamford to NYC) in 1896 and first Boston in 1897.
Melpomene. Greek female who reputedly ran the marathon course in Athens in 1896, although there is no real evidence.
Meyer, Gregory "Greg." Last American to win Boston (1983) is often overshadowed by Bill Rodgers in spite of a better PR (2:09:00).
Mimoun, Alain. Consistently second to his dear friend Emil Zatopek, Mimoun finally won Olympic Marathon in 1956.
Moller, Lorraine.Amassed three victories in the pioneering Avon Marathon series (1978-1986) and won bronze at Barcelona.
Moore, Kenneth "Kenny." Sports Illustrated writer and consistently strong racer; Olympian in 1968 and 1972 (fourth place).
Mota, Rosa. Overshadowed by Waitz/Benoit/Kristiansen, she was more consistent in major championships; Olympic bronze in 1984, gold in 1988.
New Balance shoes. First widely distributed shoes for road runners; U.S. company offered $1 million for breaking national record.
Newton, Arthur. Represented U.S. at Paris in 1900, finishing fifth to runners who knew shortcuts through city.
New York City Marathon. The grandfather of all big-city megamarathons continues to set standards and unleash innovations.
Nike shoes (see air sole; Blue Ribbon Sports; Bowerman, William "Bill"; Johnson, Jeff; Knight, Phil; Tiger shoes). Reportedly named by Jeff Johnson, Phil Knight shoe company evolved from selling imports to selling own brand after Bowerman made waffle sole.
Nurmi, Paavo. Pioneer and innovator of long-distance running, inspired Emil ZatopekÑand everyone else who wanted to go long fast.
Olympic Games. Created by the Greeks back in B.C. and revived by a Frenchman in Greece in 1896.
Olympic Trials Marathon. Race used to pick U.S. Olympic marathoners; previously they were picked by committee based on performances.
Ondieki (Martin-), Lisa. See Martin-Ondieki.
Osler, Thomas "Tom." Ground-breaking author with his 1966 booklet, Conditioning of Distance Runners.
Palm, Evy. No woman her age (47 at the time) or older has run a faster marathon than the Swede’s 2:31 at the 1989 London Marathon.
Peters, Jim. Most famous for heat-induced collapse at the 1954 Vancouver Commonwealth Games; reset world best mark four times; first under 2:20.
Pfitzinger, Peter "Pete." Two-time Olympian (1984 and 1988) and leading American finisher in both.
Pheidippides. Marathon patron saint; Greek hemerodromos (messenger) legend has him dying at the gates of Athens but he was too good a runner for that.
Pietri, Dorando. Gutsy Italian runner came into London Olympic stadium (1908) in the lead, repeatedly collapsed, and was disqualified when helped up.
Pinto, Antonio. Based on average of five fastest marathon times, Portugal’s Pinto ranks third at 2:08:25 (Thys 1st, Jones 2nd).
Pippig, Uta.Recent drug allegations have not dimmed multiple Boston winner’s popularity with the crowd.
Plaatjes, Mark. South African-born American won at the 1993 World ChampionshipsÑonly U.S. marathon gold-medalist in this meet.
polypropylene. Miracle fabric introduced in early 1980s revolutionized distance runners’ clothing.
PowerFoods (PowerBar). Brian Maxwell’s (Canadian Olympian) Berkeley (California)Ðbased company pioneered energy/sports bars.
Puma. German shoe company was at one time a fierce rival of Adidas; the two companies were owned by feuding brothers.
RRCA(Road Runners Club of America). Grassroots organization is 42 years old; flourished as "official" organizations ignored road racing.
RRIC (Road Running Information Center). Keeps national statistics and records for long-distance racing.
RRTC (Road Running Technical Committee). Sets standards for course measurement.
Roba, Fatuma. Ethiopian 1996 gold-medal winner dominated the race in impressive fashion; won the last three Boston Marathons.
Rodgers, Bill.Arguably most popular of U.S. marathoners; won Boston and NYC four times each.
Roe, Allison. New Zealander with movie star looks and talent to match; set since-disallowed world record at NYC in 1981.
Ross, Browning. Publisher of seminal Long Distance Log and spark plug behind founding of RRCA.
Rotterdam Marathon. Consistently fast April marathon was built with world records in mind.
Ruiz, Rosa "Rosie." Took the "T" in Boston in 1980, jumped in for final miles, claimed to be winner; later arrested on cocaine possession charges in Florida.
Runner, The (see Hirsch, George). Created in 1978 to compete with Runner’s World; eventually purchased by RW’s then-new owner, Rodale Press.
Runner’s World (see Distance Running News). World’s largest running magazine was founded in 1966 by Bob Anderson in his Kansas bedroom.
Running Times. One of the country’s oldest and largest running magazines, dating from 1977; edited by top marathoner Gordon Bakoulis.
Ryan, Michael "Mike." Won 1912 Boston; U.S. Olympic marathon coach was despised as overbearing by his charges.
Salazar, Alberto. Consistently tough-minded, hard-training, and cocky racer who backed up his promises when it mattered.
Samuelson, Joan (Benoit). See Benoit (Samuelson), Joan.
Scaff, John "Dr. Jack." A medical doctor who originated, in the 1970s, the now-popular concept of marathon-training clinics.
Segal, Erich. Bestselling author was also consistently sub-3:00 marathoner at Boston and did stint as Olympic marathon commentator.
Seko, Toshihiko. Consistently tough-minded, hard-training Japanese marathoner who liked to "run on the edge of death."
Semple, John "Jock." Eccentric, volatile guardian of the purity of the Boston Marathon; famous for trying to beat up on Kathrine Switzer in 1967.
Sheehan, Dr. George, Jr.The guru of running writers, the Red Bank (NJ) cardiologist turned "an experiment of one" into one of millions.
Sherring, William. Canadian who won the "extra Olympics" of 1906, held for the only time at a two-year interval.
Schiro, Cathy (-O’Brien). U.S. Olympic Trials at 16, still the country’s only two-time female Olympic marathoner (Seoul and Barcelona).
Shorter, Francis "Frank." Won gold in 1972, silver in 1976, credited with inspiring millions of fellow baby boomers to hit the roads on the run.
Smith, Frances "Francie" (Larrieu-). See Larrieu-Smith, Frances "Francie."
Smith, Joyce.One of the best-ever female masters runners; won first London Marathon in 1981.
So (or Soh) brothers. Japanese twins who, for several years in late 1970s, were world-class competitors and contemporaries of Seko.
Son, Kitei. See Kee-chung, Sohn.
Spiridon. Popular German running magazine.
Squires, William "Billy." Coach of the famed GBTC (Greater Boston Track Club) during its heyday as spawning grounds of great 42Kers: Rodgers, Salazar, Meyer, Hodge, etc.
Stenroos, Albin. Second straight Finn to win an Olympic title (after Hannes Kohlemainen in 1920); no Finn has won since.
Switzer, Kathrine.Pioneer of women’s running, she was the first female to run Boston with a number; managed Avon marathon program.
Takahashi, Noako. From Japan, the fastest female marathoner in an all-women’s marathon with a 2:21:47 in 1998.
TAC (The Athletic Congress). First there was the AAU, then TAC, and now there’s USATF as U.S. amateur track and field governing body.
Theato, Michel. French delivery boy who, by knowing shortcuts through the city, beat favored Arthur Newton at Paris Games in 1900.
Thugwane, Josiah. This slight South African runner won gold at Atlanta in 1996; stresses education to his offspring.
Thys, Gert. Top five marathons average 2:08:02! Set second fastest time ever in February 1999 with 2:06:33 at Tokyo.
Tiger shoes. (see air sole; Asics; Blue Ribbon Sports; Bowerman, William "Bill"; Johnson, Jeff; Knight, Phil.)
Turnbull, Derek. New Zealander sheep rancher regularly ran marathons in the 2:30s in his early 60s.
Ullyot, Dr. Joan.Medical doctor who wrote Women’s Running, the first great book on the subject; ran 2:47 at age 48.
USATF (USA Track & Field). The sport’s current governing body in the U.S.
Van Aaken, Ernst. Crippled German coach who in the 1970s did much to advance women’s marathon, including hosting a championship marathon in the town of Waldniel.
Viren, Lasse. Finn placed fifth at the Montreal Games in his first marathon after winning 5,000 and 10,000; tried to match Zatopek.
waffle sole (see Bowerman, William "Bill"; Nike). First great marketing advance for fledgling Nike shoes, created by Bill Bowerman on his wife’s waffle iron.
Waitz, Grete. Brought the women’s marathon into the modern era when she ran her first marathon at New York in 1978 and broke the world’s best mark.
Welch, Priscilla. Still world-record holder in the women’s masters marathon with 2:26:51 at 1987 London.
Western Hemisphere Marathon. Oldest U.S. marathon west of Boston has run continuously in Culver City, California, since 1948.
Wilt, Fred. FBI agent invented the modern running book with How They Train (1959) and coached Buddy Edelen to his world record.
Wolde, Mamo. Teammate of Abebe Bikila won the Olympic marathon in 1968; treated dismally in home country of Ethiopia.
World Championships. Inaugurated in 1983 at Helsinki, with Grete Waitz and Rob de Castella winning.
World Cup. The first attempt at a worldwide race soon gave way to the World Championships.
Yegorova, Valentina. Winner of Olympic gold in 1992 and silver in 1996; extremely consistent.
Yonkers Marathon. Longtime site of the U.S. Championships; tough race won eight times in a row by John J. Kelley.
Zabala, Juan Carlos. First Latin American to win an Olympic title (1932 at Los Angeles).
Zatopek, Emil. In his first-ever marathon he won 1952 Olympic gold in record time after also winning the 5,000 and 10,000.
Zuna, Frank.Boston winner (1921), Olympian (1924); laid-back in the extreme; staid friend Clarence DeMar called Zuna "bohemian."